Friday, 18 December 2015

SSC Special

Indian History: Early Period

  • By different given point and time, the History of India has been divided into three parts –
  •  1]Ancient 
  •  2]Medieval,
  •  3] Modern period.
  • The Ancient period starts from the earliest time to mid 8thcentury AD. While the changes were started during Gupta period.
  •  The Medieval period starts from the 7th-8th century AD. Many historians considered it from the raids of Mahmud of Ghazni over India. At last,
  • Modern period started from the period of Plassey, 1757. Because the emergence of regional rulers and breakup of the Mughal Empire was the indication of proceeding towards modern period.
  • *****The Ancient period (early to mid 8th century AD.)*****
  • 1. Prehistoric period. ~ In this age, Human beings didn't know about writing or reading due to which there is no any written description of that age, referred as Prehistoric period.
  • Prehistoric period is also known as early-man age or stone age. It is divided into three parts--- 
  •  1)Palaeolithic age or old stone age (3 lakhs to 8,000 BC.) 
  • 2) Mesolithic age or late stone age (8,000 to 4,000BC)
  •  3) Neolithic age or new stone age (4,000 to 1800 BC) 
  • 1) Palaeolithic age
  •  The occurrence of Human-beings found on the earth from 10 lakh years before.
  • But Homo-sapiens (mentally fit human) were found generally from 30 to 40 thousand years before.
  •  Hunting was the main base of theirs livelihood, completely dependent on nature for food in Palaeolithic age.
  • They used the skins of animals, barks of trees and large leaves as clothes.
  • They were living in a organised way in groups consisting of a few men, women and children.
  • The Fire was discovered in this age.
  •  This period is also known as a food - gatherer age.
  • In this age, people had made stone weapon in which "stone-axe" was the first weapon among all made by them.
  • maximum instruments of this age were found in Gujarat, Malwa, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Andhra pradesh and Orissa.
  • People used utensils made of quartzite.
  • 2) Mesolithic age •
  •  In this age, people started cattle rearing and plant cultivation.
  • They made more pointed or crescentic weapons than before to hunt fast moving animals. 
  •  People were used the utensils made up of microliths. 
  • Various Mesolithic sites are found in the Chotanagpur plateau in central India and also south of the river Krishna. 
  • The first site where Rice was found, "kolhadiwa (Uttar Pradesh)". 
  • The art of drawing were learnt by them in Palaeolithic and Mesolithic age.
  • 3) Neolithic age. 
  •  Neolithic communities are found mostly in the north-western region e.g. the Sulaiman and kirtar hills, in the Vindhayas in Deccan and the Garo hills in the north-east. 
  • Baluchistan was the oldest settlements of Neolithic communities. 
  •  In this age, Human began to domesticate animals like the dog, goat and sheep firstly. 
  • Due to maximum yielding of crops, people were now settled in a community. This led to growth of villages. 
  • Due to cultivation, they were now using a heavy digging-stick used for digging the ground; a sickle used for harvesting crops; an axe used for cutting and felling trees; different types of potteries to store surplus grain mainly ochre-coloured pottery. 
  •  The "wheel" was the most important discovery to take away & near anything. I mean to say "Transportation". 
  • After this period, the use of metals began. •
  • Neolithic sites : Kashmir, Sindh, Bihar, Bengal, UP and Andhra Pradesh.
  • CHALCOLITHIC PERIOD (mixture of stones and copper) from 1800 BC to 800AD.
  •  This is the period between of Neolithic and bronze age.   
  •  At first, human used copper among all metals.     
  •  In this age, Earth was worshipped as a goddess     
  •  Zorway’s culture was the best culture in this age. 
  • The people of Zorway were used ornaments of gold, catche fishes          and use "barter system" in their trade.
  • They used utensils with tube 
  •  Due to excess Drought, Chalcolithic culture was entirely diminished. 


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Himanshu Shrivastava
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