Friday, 24 June 2016

Adverb Part-8 {Viewpoint and commenting adverbs}

Viewpoint and commenting adverbs

 

There are some adverbs and adverbial expressions which tell us about the speaker's viewpoint or opinion about an action, or make some comment on the action. These adverbs are different from other adverbs because they do not tell us how an action occurred. Commenting and viewpoint adverbs modify entire clauses rather than single verbs, adverbs, or adjectives. There is no real distinction between commenting adverbs and viewpoint adverbs, except in their sentence placement. Many adverbs that can be used as viewpoint adverbs can also be used as commenting adverbs. However, in some cases, an adverb is far more common as one or the other.

Sentence placement

Viewpoint adverbs are placed at the beginning, or more rarely, at the end of the sentence. They are usually separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. Commenting adverbs are placed before the main verb unless the verb "to be" is used, in which case placement can be either before or after the verb. In some cases, commenting adverbs placed before the main verb will also be separated from the rest of the sentence by commas, although in most cases they will not be. In the examples below, viewpoint and commenting adverbs are shown in the correct sentence placements. When a sentence placement is unusual, stilted, or too formal for spoken language, it is marked with an asterisk.
Viewpoint or commenting adverb At the start of a sentence Before the main verb At the end of a sentence
clearly Clearly, he doesn't know what he is doing. He clearly doesn't know what he is doing. He doesn't know what he is doing, clearly.
obviously Obviously, you are acting silly. You are obviously acting silly You are acting silly, obviously.
personally Personally, I'd rather go by train. I'd personally rather go by train. I'd rather go by train, personally.
presumably Presumably, he didn't have time to go to the post office. He presumably didn't have time to go to the post office. He didn't have time to go to the post office, presumably.
seriously Seriously, I can't give this speech. I seriously can't give this speech. I can't give this speech, seriously.
surely Surely you tried to get here on time. You surely tried to get here on time. You tried to get here on time, surely.
technically Technically, we cannot fly to Mars and back. We technically cannot fly to Mars and back. We cannot fly to Mars and back, technically.
undoubtedly Undoubtedly, he has a good reason not to come. He undoubtedly has a good reason not to come. He has a good reason not to come, undoubtedly.
bravely Bravely, I kept on walking. I bravely kept on walking. *I kept on walking, bravely.
carelessly Carelessly, she threw her book into the pond. She carelessly threw her book into the pond. *She threw her book into the pond, carelessly.
certainly Certainly you should be there. You certainly should be there. / You should certainly be there. You should be there, certainly.
cleverly Cleverly, Sally hid the jellybeans. Sally cleverly hid the jellybeans. *Sally hid the jellybeans, cleverly.
definitely *Definitely, you are smart. You defintely are smart. / You are definitely smart. *You are smart, definitely.
foolishly Foolishly, they cried out. They foolishly cried out. They cried out, foolishly.
generously Generously, he donated the money. He generously donated the money. *He donated the money, generously.
stupidly Stupidly, they played in the street. They stupidly played in the street. *They played in the street, stupidly.
obviously Obviously, we are lost. We are obviously lost. / *We obviously are lost. We are lost, obviously.
kindly Kindly, she fed the cat first. She kindly fed the cat first. She fed the cat first, kindly.
luckily Luckily, you got here on time. You luckily got here on time. You got here on time, luckily.
fortunately Fortunately, we found the boat. We fortunately found the boat. We found the boat, fortunately.
naturally Naturally, you cannot be in the circus now. You naturally cannot be in the circus now. You cannot be in the circus now, naturally.
wisely Wisely, she stayed home to take a nap. She wisely stayed home to take a nap. She stayed home to take a nap, wisely.
confidentially Confidentially, I never gave him the envelope.   I never gave him the envelope, confidentially.
theoretically Theoretically, we could send astronauts to Mars. We could theoretically send astronauts to Mars. / We theoretically could send astronauts to Mars. We could send astronauts to Mars, theoretically.
truthfully Truthfully, I don't like chocolate much. I truthfully don't like chocolate much. I don't like chocolate much, truthfully.
disappointingly Disappointingly, she got fourth place. She disappointingly got fourth place. She got fourth place, disappointingly.
thoughtfully Thoughtfully, I turned away. I thoughtfully turned away. I turned away, thoughtfully.
simply *Simply, I don't want to come. I simply don't want to come.  
unbelievably Unbelievably, she showed up late again. She unbelievably showed up late again. She showed up late again, unbelievably.
unfortunately Unfortunately, there is no more room. There is unfortunately no more room. / There unfortunately is no more room. There is no more room, unfortunately.

 

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Himanshu Shrivastava
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