Friday, 15 July 2016

Highligts of the Five years plan in India

Five Years Plan 

1. First Plan (1951 − 56) It was based on
Harrod-Domar Model. Community
Development Program was launched in
1952. Emphasized on agriculture, price
stability, power & transport. It was more
than a success, because of good harvests
in the last two years.

2. Second Plan (1956 − 61) Also called
Mahalanobis Plan after its chief
architect. Its objective was rapid
industrialization. Advocated huge
imports which led to emptying of funds
leading to foreign loans. It shifted basic
emphasis from agriculture to industry
far too soon. During this plan, price level
increased by 30%, against a decline of
13% during the First Plan.

3. Third Plan (1961 − 66) At its conception
time, it was felt that Indian economy has
entered a take-off stage. Therefore, its
aim was to make India a ‘self-reliant’
and ‘self-generating’ economy. Also, it
was realized from the experience of first
two plans that agriculture should be
given the top priority to suffice the
requirement of export and industry.
Complete failure due to unforeseen
misfortunes, viz. Chinese aggression
(1962), Indo-Pak war (1965), severest
drought in 100 years (1965 − 66).

4. Three Annual Plans (1966 − 69) Plan
holiday for 3years. The prevailing crisis
in agriculture and serious food shortage
necessitated the emhasis on agriculture
during the Annual Plans. During these
plans a whole new agricultural strategy
involving wide-spread distribution of
High-Yielding Varieties of seeds, the
extensive use of fertilizers, exploitation
of irrigation potential and soil
conservation was put into action to tide-
over the crisis in agricultural production.
During the Annual Plans, the economy
basically absorbed the shocks given
during the Third Plan, making way for a
planned growth.

5. Fourth Plan (1969 − 74) Main emphasis
on agriculture's growth rate so that a
chain reaction can start. Fared well in
the first two years with record
production, last three years failure
because of poor monsoon. Had to tackle
the influx of Bangladeshi refugees before
and after 1971 Indo-Pak war.

6. Fifth Plan (1974 − 79) The fifth plan
prepared and launched by D D Dhar
proposed to achieve two main objectives
viz, ‘removal of poverty’ (Garibi Hatao)
and ‘attainment of self reliance’ through
promotion of high rate of growth, better
distribution of income and a very
significant growth in the domestic rate of
savings. The plan was terminated in
1978 (instead of 1979) when Janta Govt.
Came to power.

7. Rolling Plan (1978 − 80) There were 2
Sixth Plans. One by Janta Govt (for 78 −
83). which was in operation for 2 years
only and the other by the Congress Govt.
When it returned to power in 1980.

8. Sixth Plan (1980 − 85) Objectives:
Increase in national income,
modernization of technology, ensuring
continuous decrease in poverty and
unemployment, population control
through family planning, etc.

9. Seventh Plan (1985 − 90) The Seventh
plan emphasized policies and programs
which aimed at rapid growth in food-
grains production, increased
employment opportunities and
productivity within the framework of
basic tenants of planning. It was a great
success, the economy recorded 6%
growth rate against the targeted 5%.

10. Eighth Plan (1992 − 97) The eighth plan
was postponed by two years because of
political upheavals at the Centre and it
was launched after a worsening Balance
of Payment position and inflation during
1990 − 91. The plan undertook various
drastic policy measures to combat the
bad economic situation and to undertake
an annual average growth of 5.6% Some
of the main economic performances
during eighth plan period were rapid
economic growth, high growth of
agriculture and allied sector, and
manufacturing sector, growth in exports
and imports, improvement in trade and
current account deficit.

11. Ninth Plan (1997 − 2002) It was
developed in the context of four
important dimensions: Quality of life,
generation of productive employment,
regional balance and self-reliance.
12. Tenth Plan (2002 − 2007) To achieve the
growth rate of GDP@8% .
Reduction of poverty ratio to 20% by 2007 and
to 10% by 2012.
Providing gainful high quality employment to
the addition to the labour force over the tenth
plan period.
Universal access to primary education by 2007.
Reduction in gender gaps in literacy and wage
rates by atleast 50% by 2007.
Reduction in decadal rate of population growth
between 2001 and 2011 to 16.2%.
Increase in literacy rate to 72% within the
plan period and to 80% by 2012.
Reduction of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to 45
per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 28 by 2012.
Increase in forest and tree cover to 25% by
2007 and 33% by 2012.
All villages to have sustained access to potable
drinking water by 2012.
Cleaning of all major polluted rivers by 2007
and other notified stretches by 2012.

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Himanshu Shrivastava
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